By the end of the XVIII century in such districts of Kyiv as Upper Town, Podil and Pechersk brick house construction spread out. In 1679 a big wooden bridge over the Dnieper River was constructed.in the area of later well-known Chain Bridge.
In the XVIII century Kyiv had been growing fast. Lots of monumental constructions were built: Mariyinsky Palace, Kyiv Pechersk Lavra’s bell tower, St Andrew’s Church, some buildings of Saint Sophia’s Cathedral. It took place an active reconstruction of Podil and Pechersk area. At the end of the century population of Kyiv was 30 000 people living in 3860 houses. Notable masters, cultural workers and scholars had been coming to Kyiv from all over the country. A great son of the Russian people Mikhail Lomonosov, Ukrainian philosopher Hryhorii Skovoroda, architect Ivan Hryhorovych-Barskyi and many others were studying in Kyiv-Mohyla Academy.
By the end of the XVIII century three parts of Kyiv - Podil, Upper Town and Pechersk - hadn’t been connected with each other. A steam was running in the valley of present-day Khreshchatyk and slopes were covered with a dense forest. Unsettled territories between different parts of the city became built up only at the beginning of the XIX century.
Great changes have taken place at the Podil after a fire in 1811. At that time Podil’s reconfiguration was made: wide streets, parks and squares were laid out. In a few years there appeared new residential areas in so-called classicism style. Many of those buildings still exist. In the late XVIII and in the early XIX centuries the country had been going through a period of the feudal system decaying and capitalism developing. In the first half of the XIX century several factories, plants, many forging shops, fitting shops, jewelller’s, tanneries, breweries, shoemaking, carpentry and other shops had been working in Kyiv. Kyiv Kontraktova Fair was famous for its trade turnover throughout the empire.
Further development of craft, expansion of domestic and foreign trade led to aggravation of class contradictions. With appearance of Decembrists secret societies in St. Petersburg, there was found a "Southern society" in Ukraine. Its members were P. Pestel, S. Muravyov-Apostol, M. Bestuzhev-Ryumin and others. In 1822 - 1825 Decembrists often gathered in Kyiv at congresses and meetings in order to discuss struggle for serfdom elimination. In 1821 a great Russian poet Alexander Pushkin had been living in Kyiv for a while.
At the same time Kyiv had been developing culturally. In 1805 a theater was opened in the city. Since 1836 the newspaper "Kiyevskiye Gubernskiye Vedomosti" started being published. In 1834 the university and a little bit later male gymnasium and other educational institutions were opened. Many famous writers as Kondraty Ryleyev, Aleksander Griboyedov, Mikola Gogol, Aleksander Pushkin and others visited Kyiv. Prominent architects Andrey Melensky, Vincent Berettie, as well as painters, artists, doctors and many progressive people of that time worked here. All that has had a positive influence on further development of Ukrainian culture.
In the middle of the XIX century industrial enterprises started growing. Iron foundry, several brick-, tanneries- and other factories, many large workshops were built in Kyiv. The number of hired workers was rapidly increasing at enterprises. In 1848 building of the Chain Bridge began and it was finished in 1853. Later, in 1920, this bridge was blown up by the retreating Polish army.
All these factors were favorable to Kyiv growth and expansion. In the 50 - 70-ies of the XIX century Khreschatyk was built up. A lot of blocks of houses appeared at Bessarabka, Taras Shevchenko Boulevard (early Bibikovskiy Boulevard), at Lipki etc.
Growth of Kyiv was significantly affected by construction of the railway line Moscow - Kursk – Kyiv in 1863 - 1869. In 1870 - 1871 construction of the railway Kyiv – Odessa was completed.
Kyiv had been developing even faster in the last quarter of the XIX century. Main railway workshops with rapidly increasing number of workers developed into a major locomotive-car-repair plant. In the 90-ies of the XIX century city water supply and power station began to work. In 1892 a first tram started running in Kyiv.
In 1898 the Polytechnic institute preparing personnel for domestic industry, transport and agriculture was open.
With development of industry, trade and opening of many institutions the number of urban population increased. In 1865 there were 71 365 people in Kyiv, but in 1897 - 347 400 people, and just before the First World War the city already had more than half a million inhabitants.
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